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Most-download articles are from the articles published in 2022 during the last three month.

Review Articles
Effectiveness and Safety of Low-Level Laser Treatment for Lumbar Disc Herniation: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Sang Jun Lee, Seung Jin Noh, Jeong Rock Kim, Kyung Bok Park, Sae-rom Jeon, Yejin Hong, Dongwoo Nam
Perspect Integr Med. 2023;2(3):155-163.   Published online October 23, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.56986/pim.2023.10.003
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Graphical AbstractGraphical Abstract AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary Material
Background
Low-level laser treatment (LLLT) is used to treat low back pain (LBP) however, its effects on lumbar disc herniation (LDH) remain unclear. The safety and effectiveness of LLLT for LDH was determined using a systematic review of randomized clinical trials.
Methods
Studies on LLLT in adults with LDH were identified from 12 worldwide databases. A risk of bias assessment and a meta-analysis with categorization according to the type of control used (inactive, active, or add-on) was performed. The quality of evidence was assessed using the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation.
Results
The quantitative analyses included five studies. LLLT was significantly more effective at treating LDH [leg pain visual analog scale (VAS) mean difference (MD): -1.90, 95% confidence interval (CI): -2.01, -1.80, I2 80%; LBP VAS MD: -0.79, 95% CI: -0.87, -0.71, I2 80%] than inactive controls (placebo or sham). The quality of the evidence ranged from “low” to “very low.” As an add-on to usual care, LLLT significantly improved pain intensity and disability compared with usual care (leg pain VAS MD: -2.52, 95% CI: -2.65, -2.40, I2 97%; LBP VAS MD: -1.47, 95% CI: -1.58, -1.36; Oswestry Disability Index MD: -4.10, 95% CI: -4.55, -3.65, I2 6%). However, the quality of the evidence ranged from “moderate” to “low.”
Conclusion
LLLT significantly improved outcomes compared with the inactive controls, but was not more effective than usual care for LDH. In combination with usual care, LLLT was significantly more effective than usual care alone highlighting the potential of LLLT.
Shoulder Pain and the Potential Role of Acupuncture: A Narrative Review of Clinical Practice and Treatment Guidelines
Stephen Birch, Myeong Soo Lee, Tae-Hun Kim, Terje Alraek
Perspect Integr Med. 2022;1(1):3-9.   Published online September 22, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.56986/pim.2022.09.002
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  • 89 Download
  • 1 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary Material
The potential use of acupuncture for shoulder pain of various etiologies and whether clinicians make recommendations about the use of acupuncture was examined. Shoulder pain is a common clinical problem. What is the level of evidence and how often is acupuncture recommended for shoulder pain? A manual and database (PubMed) search of review articles of related clinical trials and guidelines was performed. The evidence for effectiveness of acupuncture treatment of different types of shoulder pain was weak. However, there are some studies, with a weak to moderate level of evidence, on shoulder pain (across nine subtypes of shoulder pain). Acupuncture is safe and may be a cost-effective treatment for shoulder pain. There were 131 statements recommending the use of acupuncture for shoulder pain across 12 subtypes of shoulder pain. The most common statements were for non-specific ‘shoulder pain.’ There were 11 statements against the use of acupuncture for shoulder pain and three subtypes of shoulder pain. The level of evidence in studies of acupuncture treatment for shoulder pain is low, therefore, further research is needed. Recommendations for the use of acupuncture for shoulder pain are increasing but lag behind those for other pain problems such as low back pain.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • A Review of Key Research and Engagement in 2022
    John McDonald, Sandro Graca, Claudia Citkovitz, Lisa Taylor-Swanson
    Journal of Integrative and Complementary Medicine.2023; 29(8): 455.     CrossRef
Letter
Does the Chinese Literature Indicate Larger Effect Sizes? This Might Indeed be the Case
Tae-Hun Kim, Jung Won Kang
Perspect Integr Med. 2023;2(3):202-203.   Published online October 23, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.56986/pim.2023.10.009
  • 289 View
  • 17 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
This letter discusses concerns in a currently published meta-epidemiological study on commonly observed large effect sizes in the Chinese literature, focusing on potential selection bias and analysis methods. Researchers should be cautious when conducting systematic reviews that include the literature from specific countries or regions. Regardless of the country, the key issue is to enhance future research quality.
Review Article
An Umbrella Review of Systematic Reviews for Chuna (or Tuina) Manual Therapy on Musculoskeletal Disorders
Doori Kim, Gil Geun Baek, Byung-Cheul Shin
Perspect Integr Med. 2023;2(3):142-154.   Published online October 23, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.56986/pim.2023.10.002
  • 559 View
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Graphical AbstractGraphical Abstract AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary Material
Background
To provide clinicians with reliable evidence an umbrella review of systematic reviews (SRs) on Chuna manual therapy (CMT) for musculoskeletal disorders was performed to synthesize important outcomes.
Methods
There were eight databases (Cochrane, EMBASE, MEDLINE, CNKI, KMBASE, KISS, Scienceon, and OASIS) searched as well as the international database Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews in health and social care until August 2023. SRs of randomized controlled trials involving patients with musculoskeletal conditions, limited to interventions explicitly labeled as “Chuna” or “Tuina” in English, Chinese, or Korean language were retrieved. Two reviewers independently conducted selection and data extraction, and SR quality was assessed using A Measurement Tool to Assess Systematic Reviews tool (low, medium, or high quality).
Results
This review included 32 SRs, categorized by cervical (n = 4), thoracolumbar (n = 7), upper extremity (n = 5), lower extremity (n = 9), and other musculoskeletal disorders (n = 7). Quality assessments determined that three SRs were of “high” quality, two were “low” quality, and the remaining SRs were of “medium” quality. CMT was consistently reported to demonstrate superior outcomes: an effective rate was observed in 17 of 19 SRs, CMT was effective at reducing pain in 12 of the 16 SRs, and functional outcomes of CMT were observed in 8 of 12 SRs. No serious adverse events were reported.
Conclusion
CMT may be a safe and effective treatment for various musculoskeletal disorders based on the limited number of studies and the low quality of included SRs.
Original Article
Acupuncture Needles and the Risk of Lymphedema After Breast Cancer Surgery: A Retrospective National Cohort Study
Ye-Seul Lee, Yucheol Lim, Jiyoon Yeo
Perspect Integr Med. 2024;3(1):29-36.   Published online February 22, 2024
DOI: https://doi.org/10.56986/pim.2024.02.004
  • 87 View
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Graphical AbstractGraphical Abstract AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary Material
Background
Controversies remain over the impact of using needles on breast cancer patients after surgery due to risk of breast cancer-related lymphedema (BCRL). While recent literature suggests that vascular access during the postsurgical stage does not affect the risk of BCRL, the impact of acupuncture on the risk of BCRL during the postsurgical stage has not been studied.
Methods
This study included 35,153 patients from 2011 to 2013 who were newly diagnosed with breast cancer in a population-based cohort from the Korean National Health Insurance Service database. All patients received breast surgery, and the treatment group received acupuncture for more than 3 sessions in the 3-6 months post-surgery. The control group did not receive acupuncture. The incidence rate ratio, Kaplan-Meier curve, and Cox proportional hazards models were used to compare the risk of BCRL, and death between groups.
Results
About 5.8% of the study population received acupuncture during the 3-6 months post-surgery treatment window. After propensity score matching, the acupuncture treatment group did not show an increased risk of BCRL (IRR 1.017, 95% CI 0.868-1.193; unadjusted HR 1.018, 95% CI 0.868-1.193). This risk was robust in all multivariate Cox proportional hazards models.
Conclusion
An association of BCRL with acupuncture was not observed. Patients who received acupuncture to manage symptoms such as pain during the 3-6 months postsurgical stage did not have a higher risk of developing BCRL. Breast cancer patients who seek acupuncture to alleviate post-surgery symptoms such as pain, can receive acupuncture without concerns for potential risk of BCRL.
Review Article
Characteristics and Quality of Traditional Chinese Therapies and Integrative Medicine Clinical Practice Guidelines for Musculoskeletal Disorders Published in Mainland China
Xue-Feng Wang, Jing-Ling Zuo, Lin-Jian Li, Lan-Dan Xu, Xiao-Zhong Liu, Si-Si Ma, Jian-Ping Liu
Perspect Integr Med. 2024;3(1):7-17.   Published online February 22, 2024
DOI: https://doi.org/10.56986/pim.2024.02.002
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Graphical AbstractGraphical Abstract AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary Material
Background
Musculoskeletal disorders are prevalent in adults. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) and integrative medicine (IM) are commonly used treatments which have clinical practice guidelines (CPGs). This study aimed to determine the characteristics and quality of these CPGs.
Methods
CPGs which recommended TCM/IM therapies in musculoskeletal conditions/diseases published in Chinese or English between January 2018 to December 2022 in mainland China were retrieved and analyzed for guideline classification, funding source, conflict of interest, and methodology. Appraisal of Guideline for Research and Evaluation Ⅱ including 6 domains, was applied to assess CPG quality.
Results
Of the 50 CPGs included, there were 19 TCM, 5 IM, and 26 western conventional medicine (WCM) guidelines of which osteoporosis (13, 26%), osteoarthritis (11, 22%) and rheumatoid arthritis (6, 12%) were the most frequent diseases. The TCM therapies recommended by the CPGs successively were acupuncture and moxibustion, Chinese patent medicine, and TCM decoction based on syndrome differentiation. Nearly half of the CPGs reported funding source (52%) and conflict of interest (48%). Thirty-six CPGs used the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development, and Evaluations method to present summaries of evidence, the remaining did not report the method. Based on Appraisal of Guideline for Research and Evaluation Ⅱ scores, “clarity of presentation” scored the highest (55%), while “applicability” was the lowest (6%). No CPG was recommended without change, and 23 CPGs were not recommended.
Conclusion
The quality of CPGs for musculoskeletal conditions/diseases in China is generally low. Future CPGs should pay more attention to standardized developing procedures.
Editorials
A Pilot Trial of Integrative Medicine for Stroke Rehabilitation: Expert Recommendations for the Development and Sustainability of Integrative Medicine
Chihyoung Son, Go-Eun Lee, Joo-Hee Seo, Inae Youn, Jin-Won Kim
Perspect Integr Med. 2024;3(1):1-6.   Published online February 22, 2024
DOI: https://doi.org/10.56986/pim.2024.02.001
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Graphical AbstractGraphical Abstract AbstractAbstract PDF
Background
Strategies towards development and sustainability of integrative treatment in stroke rehabilitation medicine are needed. National expert recommendations based on the implementation of Integrative Medicine (IM) in stroke rehabilitation and IM outcomes would be invaluable.
Methods
A pilot study was performed and the effectiveness of combining Korean traditional medicine and Western conventional medicine in post-stroke patients (ischemic stroke n = 15 and hemorrhagic stroke n = 4) was evaluated, and recommendations were developed through consensus with physicians in national centers of rehabilitative medicine. Outcome measures [Korean Modified Barthel Index (K-MBI), Korean Mini Mental State Examination (K-MMSE), Modified Rankin Scale (mRS), and EuroQol 5-dimension 5-level (EQ-5D-5L) assessment were used at baseline, 4, 8 (K-MBI, K-MMSE, mRS, and EQ-5D-5L) and 12 weeks post treatment (EQ-5D-5L and mRS).
Results
Improvements were observed in functional and cognitive abilities at 8 weeks (K-MBI score p = 0.0062; K-MMSE score p = 0.046). Quality of life improvements (EQ-5D-5L) were observed but were not statistically significant. The disability assessment (mRS) indicated a gradual improvement from baseline to 12 weeks. No adverse events were reported. For effective, patient-centered IM treatment: (1) build a strong evidence base for IM as compared with Western medicine alone or traditional medicine alone; (2) active expert collaboration; (3) IM promotion in public medical institutions; and (4) continued government support.
Conclusion
Functional and cognitive abilities of stroke patients statistically significantly improved following 8 weeks of IM treatment. Strategies have been suggested towards the development and sustainability of IM treatment in stroke rehabilitation medicine.
Best Evidence for Best Care
Nicola Robinson
Perspect Integr Med. 2023;2(3):139-141.   Published online October 23, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.56986/pim.2023.10.001
  • 633 View
  • 30 Download
Graphical AbstractGraphical Abstract PDF
Short Communication
The Mazzanti AcuOsteo Method®: Pathology and Treatment with Acupuncture and Osteopathy of the Musculoskeletal Pain of The Upper and Lower Limbs
Umberto Mazzanti
Perspect Integr Med. 2023;2(2):126-130.   Published online June 23, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.56986/pim.2023.06.007
  • 1,259 View
  • 86 Download
Graphical AbstractGraphical Abstract AbstractAbstract PDF
Musculoskeletal pain is one of the most frequent reasons for consultations in my clinic. In my experience of 35 years, acupuncture, and osteopathy are effective techniques in the treatment of musculoskeletal pain of the upper and lower limbs. Pain reported by the patient often affects a widespread area around the joint and is usually associated with some stiffness. The aim of acupuncture is to restore the local circulation of Qì and Blood, inducing an analgesic and anti-inflammatory effect, along with myofascial detensioning. The aim of the osteopathic manipulative treatment is to return joints to their normal position and restore restricted joint motion. The Mazzanti AcuOsteo Method is a newly patented method which uses the synergistic combination of using points for acupuncture, cupping or bleeding, and osteopathy to maximize effectiveness of treatment for musculoskeletal pain.
Original Article
Contributing Factors in the Decision to Study Korean Medicine and Satisfaction with the College Experience: A Quantitative Nationwide Study
HyunSeok Kim, Hyunho Kim, Joohyun Lee, Hwimun Kim
Perspect Integr Med. 2023;2(3):173-181.   Published online October 23, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.56986/pim.2023.10.005
  • 558 View
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Graphical AbstractGraphical Abstract AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary Material
Background
The practice of Korean medicine (KM) taught at KM colleges has equal legal rights and responsibilities as Western medicine in South Korea. To date, no research has been conducted on the factors which influence college students in their choice to study KM and satisfaction with the course.
Methods
Content validity and face validity tests were conducted while developing the questionnaires. Research was conducted amongst all KM colleges in South Korea and of the 744 premedical KM 2nd year students, 420 participated. Analysis was performed on how much the mean values changed between the items and sub-items. Factors were also correlated with the students’ satisfaction and willingness to reenter KM colleges.
Results
The means of stable incumbency items were the highest of all the items, while items concerning experience of chronic disease had the lowest mean values. For enrollment, the latent value that most questionnaire items were changed positively by was interest in KM. Items related to students’ choice or KM doctor status were closely tied to students’ current satisfaction with their choice to enroll at a KM college, rather than their college entrance examination scores.
Conclusion
Identifying which factors are considered before entering KM college and during the course can help students to be more satisfied with their academic progress. To satisfy the KM students, educators should focus on providing both qualified clinical training and guidance to enter diverse career fields. This study highlights factors that can be applied to college curriculum or subject teaching.
Review Article
Clinical Research on Pharmacopuncture in Korea: A Scoping Review
Me-riong Kim, Seong Min Lee, Yoon Jae Lee, In-Hyuk Ha
Perspect Integr Med. 2023;2(1):8-23.   Published online February 21, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.56986/pim.2023.02.003
  • 1,579 View
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  • 5 Citations
Graphical AbstractGraphical Abstract AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary Material
This scoping review was performed as an update on the effects and safety of pharmacopuncture clinical research for the treatment of multiple indications in Korea. Nine electronic databases were searched to identify comparative clinical studies and clinical practice guidelines on Korean pharmacopuncture from inception to December 31, 2022. In vivo and in vitro studies, and case reports were excluded. There were 226 studies identified, including randomized controlled trials, retrospective comparison observational studies, and single-subject crossover designs, of which 17 focused on clinical safety profiles. Most studies pertained to rehabilitation medicine, especially for musculoskeletal (n = 129) and nervous system disorders (n = 35). The evidence supported treatment of neoplasms, obesity, and stroke sequelae. Adverse events of pharmacopuncture were mostly mild and temporary, and occurred more frequently with bee venom compared with herb-derived solutions. Thirty-five clinical practice guidelines including recommendations on pharmacopuncture were included. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first scoping review of clinical pharmacopuncture use in Korea, and our findings support its use in clinical practice and research. Considering the diverse clinical applications of pharmacopuncture, additional pragmatic trials are required to further strengthen the evidence base and develop standard research methodology in Korean medicine.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Long-term follow-up of inpatients with meniscus tears who received integrative Korean medicine treatment: A retrospective analysis and follow-up survey
    June Haeng Lee, Jin Young Song, Kyoung Sun Park, Jinho Lee, In-Hyuk Ha, Yoon Jae Lee
    Medicine.2024; 103(6): e36917.     CrossRef
  • The effect of integrative Korean medicine treatment on symptomatic lumbar facet joint cysts: A case series
    Hee-seung Choi, Yoon Jae Lee, Dae-Hyun Hahm, Hyangsook Lee, In-Hyuk Ha
    EXPLORE.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • A Pragmatic Randomized Controlled Trial on the Effectiveness and Safety of Pharmacopuncture for Chronic Lower Back Pain
    Kyoung Sun Park, Changnyun Kim, Joo Won Kim, Sang‐Don Kim, Jee Young Lee, Yoon Jae Lee, Jinho Lee, Min Ji Kim, Young Eun Choi, Changsop Yang, Chang-Hyun Han, In-Hyuk Ha
    Journal of Pain Research.2023; Volume 16: 2697.     CrossRef
  • Long-Term Follow-Up of Inpatients with Rotator Cuff Tear Who Received Integrative Korean Medicine Treatment: A Retrospective Analysis and Questionnaire Survey
    Dong-Hwi Yoo, Jae-Yong Choi, Sang-Gun Lee, Ki-Won Choi, Han-Bin Park, Ho Kim, Hyunwoo Cho, Sang Don Kim, Doori Kim, Yoon Jae Lee, Kyoung Sun Park, In-Hyuk Ha
    EXPLORE.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Domestic Clinical Research Trends of Shinbaro Pharmacopuncture: Scoping Review
    Yeongmin Kim, Yunhee Han, Seungkwan Choi, Jungho Jo, Byeonghyeon Jeon, Hyeonjun Woo, Wonbae Ha, Junghan Lee
    Journal of Korean Medicine Rehabilitation.2023; 33(4): 125.     CrossRef
Original Article
Improvement in Growth in Adolescents with Average Height Using A Massage Chair: A Prospective Single Arm Pre-Post and National Standard Data Comparison Study
Sul Gi Park, Gyu Tae Chang, Jin Yong Lee, Sun Haeng Lee
Perspect Integr Med. 2023;2(3):164-172.   Published online October 23, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.56986/pim.2023.10.004
  • 341 View
  • 11 Download
Graphical AbstractGraphical Abstract AbstractAbstract PDF
Background
This study aimed to examine the changes in height, weight, and bone age between pre- and post-intervention when using a BEG-100 massage chair daily.
Methods
Thirty-five children aged 11 years who were close to the average height (145-155 cm) were included in the study. There were 34 participants who used the BEG-100 massage chair for 24 weeks. Daily intervention consisted of 20 minutes of lower body massage and 10 minutes of whole-body massage. Height, weight, and adverse events were checked every five visits, while a hand X-ray was used before and after massages. The height percentile and height standard deviation score (SDS) were calculated using the 2017 Korean growth chart. The bone age and predicted adult height using radiographs were computed using the Tanner-Whitehouse method. The paired t-test or Wilcoxon signed-rank test was used according to normality of data to determine statistical significance.
Results
A total of 31 children were included in the final analysis. The height percentile and height SDS significantly increased after BEG-100 massage chair use (2.39; p = 0.032, and 0.07; p = 0.036, respectively). However, these changes were not significant in children whose baseline height was shorter than the average. There were no significant differences in bone age, height for bone age, predicted adult height, or sitting height/height ratio. None of the participants complained of adverse events.
Conclusion
The height percentile and SDS of teenagers increased after use of massage chair therefore, it is necessary to perform larger randomized controlled clinical studies. Trial registration: KCT0004673.
Protocol
Validation of a New Sham Acupuncture Needle for Double-Blind Trials: A Study Protocol
Sung Min Lim
Perspect Integr Med. 2024;3(1):57-60.   Published online February 22, 2024
DOI: https://doi.org/10.56986/pim.2024.02.008
  • 34 View
  • 4 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
Background
To establish efficacy in acupuncture treatment, rigorous randomized controlled trials (RCT) are needed. Non-invasive sham acupuncture needles are an effective tool for practitioner/participant blinding. This study presents a protocol for the validation of a newly developed sham acupuncture needle.
Methods
A double-blind RCT will be conducted on 66 healthy adults who will be randomly assigned (using computer-generated random numbers) to either the verum (n = 33) or sham (n = 33) acupuncture needle group. The needles will be inserted at 2 acupuncture points: LI4 (upper limb) and ST36 (lower limb). The primary outcome measure is the practitioner/participants belief that they received verum or sham acupuncture. The secondary outcome measures are participant-rated sensations (penetration, pain, and de qi). Adverse events will be recorded with detailed explanations, categorizing occurrences according to related or unrelated to acupuncture. As the newly developed sham acupuncture has not been studied before, an exploratory approach has been adopted. Descriptive statistics, t test, and χ² test will be applied appropriately.
Results
This study is intended to provide a protocol for the validation of a sham acupuncture needle by using a double-blind RCT setting, and the results will hopefully contribute to the standardization of the needles used for sham acupuncture. The outcomes aim to determine the reliability of practitioner/participant blinding, participant experience of sensations, and lay groundwork for a standardized control group for clinical trials in the future. The newly developed non-invasive sham acupuncture needle may reduce bias and improve reliability in the size effect of acupuncture treatment.
Review Article
A Modern Interpretation of Cold-Heat Pattern in Traditional Medicine with a Focus on Thermo-Regulation
Younggwang Kim, Jee Young Lee, Joongho Lee, Sanghun Lee
Perspect Integr Med. 2024;3(1):18-28.   Published online February 22, 2024
DOI: https://doi.org/10.56986/pim.2024.02.003
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Graphical AbstractGraphical Abstract AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary Material
Cold-heat patterns (C-HPs) in Traditional East Asian Medicine are essential for individually diagnosing and treating patients. However, the concept of C-HPs and their biological mechanisms (thermoregulation) remains unclear. C-HPs studies published between January 2000 and May 2023 were retrieved from 5 databases (PubMed, Google Scholar, OASIS, Korean studies Information Service System, and Research Information Sharing Service). Among the 8,373 articles screened, 132 were included in the review and categorized. Nineteen articles were clinical studies related to traditional concept of C-HP identification, 14 studies investigated diseases affecting thermosensation or thermoregulation, and 99 studies identified candidate genes as potential markers for C-HP identification. Further analysis, including gene ontology, and gene set enrichment analysis of the candidate genes, revealed 3 primary biological processes closely associated with thermoregulation-related genes, including localization, responses to stimuli, and homeostatic processes. Notably there was a significant association between the candidate genes and inflammatory mediator regulation of transient receptor potential channels (p < 0.001). A significant association between C-HPs and inflammation-related pathways across thermosensation-related and thermoregulation-related clinical and preclinical studies was observed, suggesting that the traditional concept of C-HPs should be studied further from an immunological perspective.
Original Article
Effectiveness of the Korean Medicine-Based Postnatal Healthcare Program: A Retrospective Observational Study
Joohee Seo, Doeun Lee, Hansong Park, Inae Youn, Jungtae Leem, Minjung Park
Perspect Integr Med. 2023;2(2):117-125.   Published online June 23, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.56986/pim.2023.06.006
  • 1,168 View
  • 30 Download
Graphical AbstractGraphical Abstract AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary Material
Background
Insufficient postpartum care can negatively affect mothers’ health. The aim of the Korean Medicine-based Postnatal Healthcare Program (KMPHP) is to prevent and treat Sanhupung by rapid intervention in postpartum care.
Methods
A retrospective study was conducted using data from 37 postpartum women who participated in the KMPHP between April 2019 and April 2020. The women had received at least one type of Korean medicine treatment (herbal medicine, acupuncture, electroacupuncture, pharmacoacupuncture, or Chuna manual therapy) for at least one session. General characteristics were collected from the medical records, and postpartum symptoms (taken from a questionnaire) were investigated. Outcome measures included pain intensity, quality of life (QoL), and postpartum depression.
Results
The effectiveness of the KMPHP was determined using the paired-sample Wilcoxon test and significant improvements in the scores were observed using the Korean version of the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (from 8 to 5, p < 0.01), EuroQol-5 Dimension-5L (from 0.82 to 0.83, p = 0.02), and EuroQol Visual Analog Scale (from 70 to 80, p < 0.01). The womens’ pain scores (Numeric Rating Scale) reduced from 4 to 3 after treatment, but the difference was not significant. As a result of analyzing the effects of each intervention, herbal medicine show a significant effect on womens’ depression, QoL and pain, and non-pharmacological intervention showed synergistic effects with herbal medicine.
Conclusion
Korean medicine-based interventions may be effective in the management of postpartum health by improving mothers’ emotional status, QoL, as well as reducing pain.

Perspect Integr Med : Perspectives on Integrative Medicine